图1    避难所允许人们通过一种安全的方式去观察他周围的环境



图2    次级避难所可以促进人们去到更远的地方




旷野区通常被设计为循环的和变化的。比如建筑师Henning Larsen设计的哥本哈根IT大学的中庭,在教室之间有一块大块的空旷区域,而避难所就是那些教室,在其中可以看到中庭或者它们在中庭上的投影。

The projecting Refuge spaces are classrooms. The school somewhat appropriately features a program of study in Game Design.

Likewise, the architecture of Le Corbusier has been described as being largely Prospect-based. One of his main design philosophies was that man should rise above nature. He projected this in his architecture by placing buildings on sites that the building would starkly contrast. Living spaces, like that in his most famous project, Villa Savoye, were lifted into the air by thin columns and the spaces within were wide and flowed into one another. Ribbon windows were used to give the human the maximum view of their surroundings.

Selected views within Villa Savoye show the interior Prospect spaces

In many ways, Le Corbusier would have been a great designer of first person shooter maps. His architecture features many instances of wide open spaces and ramps leading to higher ground, like those found in Villa Savoye itself. In these games, rising levels connected by ramps allow for players to find better vantage points from which to snipe their opponents, and the spaces of a place like Villa Savoye would be very conducive to this type of competition. His architectural style is not unlike that employed in the Boardwalk map of Halo: Reach (to readers of my blog: I just complimented the design of a Halo level… please take a moment to look outside at the flying pigs) with its own rising levels, viewpoints of the surrounding game space, and geometric forms.

New Alexandria as featured in Boardwalk could very well be taken from Le Corbusier’s Ville Contemporaine.

On the other hand, the architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright is often considered to be Refuge-based. Wright felt that the hearth was the center of the home, where the family would gather for warmth and safety. He utilized this concept in many of his building designs, and used it as his own "core mechanic" to inform everything from his room layouts to placement on sites. He liked to place houses within large groupings of trees. Even if they did not end up built in such spaces, he demanded that all perspective presentation drawings from his office be drawn with trees surrounding the house.

One example of a drafted perspective from Wright’s office

Wright had a fondness for depressed sitting areas, typical of Refuge spaces.

This section drawing shows a living room space depressed into the site itself.

Fallingwater is situated in the woods of Western Pennsylvania