利用人类求生本能设计出更好的关卡(二)

原文地址:http://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/6411/designing_better_levels_through_.php?page=2

旷野区和避难所

 

根据旷野空间的定义可知,它是一块开阔的地区,在其中玩家被暴露在威胁之中并且感觉容易被攻击。然而如果开阔的荒野在所有地方对我们的祖先都是有效的,那我们早就不存在这个世界上了。

 

人类是通过将封闭的熟悉的空间作为避难所,从而从空旷的危险区下存活下来。避难所就是远古人类可以通过其看到外面的旷野区并且估算潜在的威胁的地方,比如洞穴或者被树遮挡的区域。

 

随着时间的推移,避难所也发展为更多的地方,比如有遮盖物的门廊,院子或者房间内某些由于凹陷而给人一种单独区域的地方。它们带来的好处是,要么由于低于地面从而带来的安全,要么是足够高能够提供一个安全的视野。

 

当在处理建筑物内部是,一些东西比如天花板的高度就可以决定这块空间给人的印象究竟是危险区还是避难所,比较低的就是避难所。因为它们拥有足够的阴影来保护隐藏的人们不那么轻易的被他们的敌人发现。

 

避难所从历史的角度来说也总是在水源附近,因为它们要提供水化作用,安全,以及能够吸引那些能够作为食物的动物们前来。

 

而这个似乎像是一个很简单的概念,只是一种空间顺序的标志,所以避难所和危险区其实是可以互换的,而这对于一个关卡设计师来说是非常重要的。


图1    避难所允许人们通过一种安全的方式去观察他周围的环境

 

在迁徙过程中,早期的人们在晚上或者可以天气很坏时通过躲在避难所里寻求安全。然而如果这个避难所只是临时的或者对人们来说只是一个简单的中途停留点,他们将会利用这个避难所去寻找下一个避难所。把这个作为目标就可以允许他们为穿越危险的空旷区的旅程做计划以到达新的避难所,这种可以被称为“次级避难所”。而在次级避难所面前的又是另一个旷野区,这样继续下去,最终将会到达目的地。


图2    次级避难所可以促进人们去到更远的地方

 

如前所述,在穿越石器时代时候的平原时,其中的旷野区/避难所/次级避难并不是固定的一成不变的,这取决于它的内部设计。这些例子对于一个试图为他们的玩家设计一条道路的关卡设计者来说是非常宝贵的。在一个布满了很多敌人的环境中,善用旷野区/避难所理论将会使它产生比真实的建筑中更强烈的逻辑感觉。

 

旷野区通常被设计为循环的和变化的。比如建筑师Henning Larsen设计的哥本哈根IT大学的中庭,在教室之间有一块大块的空旷区域,而避难所就是那些教室,在其中可以看到中庭或者它们在中庭上的投影。


The projecting Refuge spaces are classrooms. The school somewhat appropriately features a program of study in Game Design.

Likewise, the architecture of Le Corbusier has been described as being largely Prospect-based. One of his main design philosophies was that man should rise above nature. He projected this in his architecture by placing buildings on sites that the building would starkly contrast. Living spaces, like that in his most famous project, Villa Savoye, were lifted into the air by thin columns and the spaces within were wide and flowed into one another. Ribbon windows were used to give the human the maximum view of their surroundings.



Selected views within Villa Savoye show the interior Prospect spaces

In many ways, Le Corbusier would have been a great designer of first person shooter maps. His architecture features many instances of wide open spaces and ramps leading to higher ground, like those found in Villa Savoye itself. In these games, rising levels connected by ramps allow for players to find better vantage points from which to snipe their opponents, and the spaces of a place like Villa Savoye would be very conducive to this type of competition. His architectural style is not unlike that employed in the Boardwalk map of Halo: Reach (to readers of my blog: I just complimented the design of a Halo level… please take a moment to look outside at the flying pigs) with its own rising levels, viewpoints of the surrounding game space, and geometric forms.



New Alexandria as featured in Boardwalk could very well be taken from Le Corbusier’s Ville Contemporaine.

On the other hand, the architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright is often considered to be Refuge-based. Wright felt that the hearth was the center of the home, where the family would gather for warmth and safety. He utilized this concept in many of his building designs, and used it as his own "core mechanic" to inform everything from his room layouts to placement on sites. He liked to place houses within large groupings of trees. Even if they did not end up built in such spaces, he demanded that all perspective presentation drawings from his office be drawn with trees surrounding the house.


One example of a drafted perspective from Wright’s office


Wright had a fondness for depressed sitting areas, typical of Refuge spaces.


This section drawing shows a living room space depressed into the site itself.


Fallingwater is situated in the woods of Western Pennsylvania

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